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The conceptual parts, which resulted in three papers, include a literature review on tensions, from which inspirations and ideas from different disciplines have been drawn in order to add value to the literature specifically addressing tensions. In parallel with this conceptual work, I explore tensions a paradox, to be specific in a specific context architecture , an effort that results in two papers. The findings highlight that first, theorizing about tensions calls for conceptual clarity.
This was accomplished by identifying and then assembling core features that scholars use to conceptualize tensions. Second, the thesis establishes that dealing with tensions productively requires a shift from thinking and doing based on a contingency approach towards contemporary approaches. Given the nature of the empirical context and the challenges therein, a true shift of this order necessitates framing tensions as paradoxes.
Moreover, dealing with tensions through this lens prevents neutralizing them and settling for a bland halfway point between one extreme and the other. Third, the thesis challenges the taken-for-granted assumption in the literature that dealing with tensions as paradoxes necessitates temporal compromise, separation, or resolution. In the thesis, I argue that dealing with paradoxes is possible without separating.
This is so because simultaneously engaging paradoxes allows organizations to tap their energy and opens up new possibilities. In this case, the thesis contributes to the literature by empirically studying architectural firms. Fourth, the thesis makes a point that not all tensions require an action move. Accordingly, the thesis establishes that dealing with paradoxes may not necessarily entail action moves but rather a space to engage in dialogue so as to connect opposites, move outside of them, and situate them in a new relationship.
In doing so, the presence of tension is appreciated and complementarity is sought. That is, the challenge is to be able to embrace paradoxes and not to resolve them.
The thesis concludes that although it is challenging to tap the power of paradoxes, it is not impossible. This thesis shows that this goal can be accomplished by accepting that paradoxes are normal, and then seeking to transcend them. Lately organizational scholars have shown growing interest in competing demands and associated tensions. This increased interest has led to a proliferation of sometimes confusing conceptualizations of such tensions. In an attempt to address this confusion, here I aim to enhance our conceptual clarity regarding tensions by identifying seven core features: the existence of a dyad, contradiction, interrelatedness, complementarity, compatibility, simultaneity, and the existence of push-pull forces.
I use these features to construct a comparative classification of tensions; the resulting more-nuanced understanding can help scholars interpret results and compare contributions in the area. This new way of conceptualizing tension is a much-needed step toward furthering our understanding of tensions in organizations. Paradoxes constitute contradictory yet interrelated organizational demands that exist simultaneously, with the resulting tensions persisting over time. Irrespective of the prevailing evidence that engaging paradoxes leads to peak performance in the short-term, which reinforces long-term success, the question of how this might be done remains perplexing.
Thus, based on pragmatic philosophy, this paper aims to increase our understanding of what constitutes a paradox and suggests a conceptual framework from which organizations and their members can frame and cope with tensions that result from paradoxes. Specifically, we conceptually map a way to achieve a synthesis of paradoxical tensions that is informed by design thinking. This synthesis is said to occur when competing demands are simultaneously fulfilled to their full potential.
In this paper, design thinking — as a management concept — is used to refer to the interplay between perspective, structure, process, and mindset. It provides an alternative framing of how organizations approach paradoxes and deal with the resulting tensions. Paradoxical tensions are pervasive and unavoidable in the everyday practice of creativity-based contexts, such as architectural firms. Whilst the existing literature has extensively explored both coping strategies and multiple ways of approaching paradoxical tensions, we still have a limited understanding of how individuals engage with paradoxical tensions and how organizations support their members' efforts to sustain such tensions.
Accordingly, my purpose here is to explore paradoxical tensions in the context of architectural firms and explain how firms and their members make sense of these tensions.
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I use a multiple case study to investigate empirically the salient paradoxical tensions central to architectural firms and to develop an understanding of what makes them salient. Based on the policing culture, especially at the local and state law enforcement levels, the officers who are out in the field on patrols often act independently without the need for consultation or supervision. State Police Agencies Also known as specialized police, state police agencies operate at the state level.
State officers are assigned the roles of response to calls for service which are then backed by investigative operations.
They also handle administrative, training and technical duties as well as court related responsibilities. In smaller towns where there are no local police departments, state officers are responsible for offering security and law enforcement services to these towns. In all the states, the police created some homeland security agencies charged with roles like advising the legislature and governor on matters of security, to oversee threat assessment of the state, infrastructure protection, receipt and distribution of DHS funds, provision of assistance and training services to local jurisdictions among others.
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Based on this, state police officers have assumed the duty of countering terrorism in their respective states Whisenand, At state level, one would also find specialized police units that undertake special police functions. For example, fish and game wardens are responsible for the enforcement of fishing, hunting and boating laws.
Different states have also invested in independent policing agencies like the Department of Motor Vehicles, Alcohol Beverage Control and Department of Criminal Investigations. These agencies are 3. In conducting their roles, they work together with other police agencies. Federal Police Agencies These are police agencies that are regularized by the federal government and are charged with the role of handling enforcement and security issues that are beyond the state boundaries and those that affect regions of the country or the whole of America.
These agencies deal with matters related to drug sales, immigration, weapon and arms regulation, and threats to internal security like terrorism. Their jurisdiction is also above that of the local and state law enforcement agencies Carter, Similarities and Comparisons The three levels of law enforcement agencies are the same in that they are all charged with the responsibility of protecting the rights and ensuring the safety of citizens that they serve within their areas of operations.
The first difference between the police agencies is the manner in which they hire. In many cities and towns, local police officers are appointed by their respective city governments, with methods of recruitment that are different from one city to another based on their rules and regulations. Because of the nature of having many specialized agencies at the state level, the top management is often made up of political appointees, although these are handpicked from a team of experienced 4.
Middle level managers are then appointed from within the force, a process conducted by civil service or based on merit.
The process must however, be done within consent and advice of the senate. The mid-level management in the federal agencies is comprised of internal officers who have been promoted on the basis of merit, or civil servants.
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The three agencies are also varied based on the roles that they play, and also their areas of jurisdiction as outlined in the report Carter, Based on the similarities or differences between the organizational, management, administration and operational functions at these three organizations, they all work according to the laws and regulations governing the areas in which they operate.
Federal agencies abide by the federal laws while state police agencies operate under the laws set out by their statutes of operations. Local agencies on the other hand, are governed by the rules of their municipalities or cities. For instance, the failure of a comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level saw the states and municipalities take matters into their own hands by deciding to pass a combination of statutes, ordinances and ballot initiatives. These new ordinances and statutes would facilitate the officers in actively pursuing illegal immigrants within the areas of their jurisdiction.
These duties are in certain ways similar to those that are carried out by the Immigration and Naturalization NIS. This would also impact additional work for the officers and their departments, thus, creating the need for training, enlarging the workforce that will eventually result into a reduction in the time available for fighting criminal activities Peak, In , Washington and Colorado legalized the personal use of marijuana.
Today, there are more than 18 states that are advocating for the use of medical marijuana.
Thus, as laws change with time, the duties and responsibilities of state and local agencies are directly affected. In this regard, state and local agencies are no longer expected to make arrests to people who are found in possession of small amounts of marijuana. However, until that time when the federal government amends the status of the use of marijuana as illegal, federal agents working for the DEA will still be required to undertake the enforcement of drug laws at the federal level Whiseland, Leadership Characteristics and Responsibilities For a police leader to be effective in performing their duties, they must have some characteristics of leadership.
To begin with, a police leader should possess technical skills, meaning that they must have special knowledge and analytical ability in the use of techniques and tools for their specific duties and responsibilities. Some of these duties which require the application of technical skills include budgeting, use of computers and basic knowledge on using some specialized tools like the breathalyzer machines. Human skills are also basic and critical for leaders of the various police agencies. These skills are related to the ability of the executive to effectively perform as a member of a team and enhance cooperation.
Such a leader should be sensitive to the needs of the people, who in this case are his junior colleagues as well as the general public that they offer services to. Besides, a leader should also be able to tolerate ambiguity while also empathizing with people bearing diverse views from his, and also people from different backgrounds. The third important characteristic of a leader is conceptual skills which are ideal for coordination and integration of activities and interests with minimal conflict.
As pointed out earlier, police activities are diverse and may not always be easy to coordinate especially because of emergency response calls. As a result 6. This skill requires adequate planning and understanding of policing Peak, Leadership responsibilities include those of the CEO, the middle managers and supervisors. The CEO, being the overall head of the police service, is charged with overseeing the entire organization; operations and efficacy of the whole police fraternity.
The duties of the CEO include formulation and communication of clear vision for the organization. Finally, the CEOs are also expected to ensure that the bureaucratic obstacles in the organization are eliminated, and this goes a long way in making sure that there is a chain of command to enhance easier communication among the various levels of power.
Organizational management and operations essay
Effective communication ensures the smooth running of operations Whiseland, Middle managers include captains and lieutenants who act as the bridge between the top management and the junior police officers. They are responsible for maintaining and use of their powers to make sure that their subordinates are empowered to confront and resolve issues more creatively and actively. They build on strengths of their much junior officers by capitalizing on their competence and training, while also encouraging the supervisors and patrol officers in the performance of their duties. It is also the responsibility of middle managers to develop systems, support mechanisms and resources towards ensuring that all the officers get the best results in their activities.
This is because the supervisors and officers are not able to undertake their duties without necessary reinforcement, equipment and resources Peak, Finally, the line supervisors work directly with patrol officers, and the officers answer directly to them every single day. References Cordner, G. Information sharing: Exploring the intersection of policing with national and military intelligence.